Complete bibliography of the
publications of Egon Brunswik
This list was compiled from lists published in Hammond, K. R. (Ed.). (1966).
Psychology of Egon Brunswik. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston,
and in Wolf, B. (1995). Brunswik und ökologische Perspektiven in
der Psychologie. Weinheim: Deutscher Studien Verlag. Professor Wolf
kindly provided his list and notes, suggested English translations, and helped check references and resolve discrepancies between the two lists.
The full text of several abstracts published in Psychological Bulletin
are also included. These were provided by Michael Doherty.
This list is also available in rtf (brunswikrefs.rtf).
Brunswik, E. (1927). Strukturmonismus und Physik. Unpublished
Dissertation, Philosophische Fakultät der Universität, Wien.
Structure-monism and physics. Faculty of Philosophy. University of
His doctoral "fathers" ("Doktorvater" is a typical German expression)
were the famous Vienna professors Karl Bühler and Moritz Schlick.
Brunswik, E. (1928). Zur Entwicklung der Albedowahrnehmung. Zeitschrift
für Psychologie, 109, 40-115.
The development of albedo-perception.
Brunswik, E., & Kindermann, H. (1929). Eidetik bei taubstummen Jugendlichen.
für angewandte Psychologie, 34, 244-274.
Eidetics in deaf-mute juveniles
Brunswik, E. (1929). Prinzipienfragen der Gestalttheorie. In E. Brunswik,
C. Bühler, H. Hetzer, L. Kardos, E. Köhler, J. Krug, & A.
Willwoll (Eds.), Beiträge zur Problemgeschichte der Psychologie:
Festschrift zu Karl Bühlers 50. Geburtstag (pp. 78-149). Jena:
Questions of principle in Gestalt theory. Contributions to the problem
history of psychology. Festschrift for Karl Bühler's 50th birthday.
Brunswik, E., & Kardos, L. (1929). Das Duplizitätsprinzip in der
Theorie der Farbenwahrnehmung. Zeitschrift für Psychologie,
The duplicity principle in the theory of color perception
Brunswik, E. (1930). Über Farben-, Größen- und Gestaltkonstanz
in der Jugend. In H. Volkelt (Ed.), Bericht über den 11. Kongreß
für experimentelle Psychologie in Wien 1929 (pp. 52-56). Jena:
On the constancy of color, size, and Gestalt in youth. Proceedings
of the 11th congress for experimental psychology in Vienna, 1929
Brunswik, E. (1932). Experimente über Kritik. Ein Beitrag zur Entwicklungspsychologie
des Denkens. In G. Kafka (Ed.), Bericht über den 12. Kongreß
der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Psychologie in Hamburg 1931 (pp.
300-305). Jena: G. Fischer.
Experiments on criticism. A contribution to the developmental psychology
of thinking. Proceedings of the 12th congress of the German Society for
Psychology in Hamburg, 1931.
Brunswik, E., Goldscheider, L., & Pilek, E. (1932). Untersuchungen
zur Entwicklung des Gedächtnisses bei Knaben und Madchen vom 6-18
Jahren. Zeitschrift für angewandte Psychologie, Beiheft
Studies in the development of memory with boys and girls aged 6-18
Brunswik, E. (1933). Die Zugänglichkeit von Gegenständen für
die Wahrnehmung und deren quantitative Bestimmung. Archiv für die
gesamte Psychologie, 88, 377-418.
The accessibility of objects for perception and their quantitative
Brunswik, E. (1934). Flächeninhalt und Volumen als Gegenstände
der Wahrnehmung. In O. Klemm (Ed.), Bericht über den 13. Kongreß
der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Psychologie in Leipzig (pp. 120-123).
Jena: G. Fischer.
Area and volume as objects of perception. Proceedings of the 13th congress
of the German Society for Psychology in Leipzig, 1933.
Brunswik, E. (1934). Wahrnehmung und Gegenstandswelt: Grundlegung einer
Psychologie vom Gegenstand her. Leipzig und Wien: F. Deuticke (Habilitationsschrift).
Perception and the world of objects: The foundations of a psychology
in terms of objects.
The "Habilitation" is a post-doctoral examination, typical for German
speaking universities. A successful candidate becomes "Privatdozent". The
"Habilitationsschrift" is the postdoctoral thesis connected with "Habilitation".
Brunswik's "Habilitations-father" was again Karl Bühler.
Tolman, E. C., & Brunswik, E. (1935). The organism and the causal texture
of the environment. Psychological Review, 42, 43-77.
Brunswik, E. (1935). Psychologie als objektive Beziehungswissenschaft.
Actualitiés Scientifiques et Industrielles, 389, 7.
Psychology as a science of objective relations
Brunswik, E. (1935). Experimentelle Psychologie in Demonstrationen.
Wien: J. Springer.
Experimental psychology in demonstrations
Brunswik, E. (1935). Prüfung und Übung höherer Wahrnehmungsleistungen
(Dingkonstanz), Bericht über den 8. Internationalen Kongreß
für Psychotechnik in Prag 1934 (pp. 684-689). Prag.
The verification and use of higher achievements of perception (thing-constancy).
Proceedings of the 8th International Congress for Psychotechnics in Prague,
Brunswik, E. (1936). Psychology in terms of objects. In H. W. Hill (Ed.),
of the 25th Anniversary Celebration of the Inauguration of Graduate Studies
(pp. 122-126). University of Southern California.
Brunswik, E. (1936). Psychologie als objektive Beziehungswissenschaft,
du Congres International de Philosophie Scientifique a Paris 1935. Tome
II: Unite de la Science (pp. 15-21). Paris: Hermann.
Psychology as a science of objective relations. Proceedings of the
International Congress for Scientific Philosophy in Paris, 1934. Volume
II. Unity of science. Paper is in French.
Brunswik, E. (1936). Psychologie vom Gegenstand her, Actes du Huitieme
Congres International de Philosophie a Prague 1934 (pp. 840-845). Prag:
Psychology in terms of objects. Proceedings of the 8th International
Congress for Philosophy in Prague, 1934
Brunswik, E., & Reiter, L. (1937). Eindruckscharaktere schematisierter
Gesichter. Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 142, 67-134.
Impression-characteristics of schematized faces
Brunswik, E., & Cruikshank, R. M. (1937). Perceptual size-constancy
in early infancy. Psychological Bulletin, 34, 713-714.
Brunswik, E. (1937). Psychology as a science of objective relations. Philosophy
of Science, 4, 227-260.
Errata: Philosophy of Science, (1938), 5, 110.
Brunswik, E. (1938). Das Induktionsprinzip in der Wahrnehmung. In H. Pieron
& J. Meyerson (Eds.), 11ieme Congres International de Psychologie
a Paris 1937. Rapports et Comptes Rendus (pp. 346-347). Paris: Alcan.
The principle of induction in perception. Proceedings of the 11th International
Congress for Psychology in Paris, 1937.
Brunswik, E. (1938). Die Eingliederung der Psychologie in die exakten Wissenschaften.
The position of psychology within the exact sciences
Brunswik, E. (1939). Perceptual characteristics of schematized human figures.
Bulletin, 36, 553.
Abstract: Twelve variations of a graphic, crudely schematized
human figure, about half of them involving changes of facial appearance
besides those of stature were presented to 58 students using the method
of paired comparison. Among the six apparent characteristics tested, greatest
agreement among the subjects was found for "good-lookingness," followed
in declining order by "age," "energy", "likeability", "happiness", "intelligence."
In approximately the same order there is an increase in the relative influence
of the face, although even for the last two of these qualities, apparent
happiness and apparent intelligence, significant differences can be found
for pairs differing only in stature and not in facial proportion. Besides
the general tendency to perceive as more intelligent the standard medium
figure, men seem to rate athletic more intelligent than leptosomatic figures
with little emphasis on height, women are more intelligent than short figures
with little emphasis on breadth. For such qualities as happy, good-looking,
and energetic, however, women seem to be favorably impressed also by breadth.
An example of the tendency toward ambivalent effects is shown by the addition
of spectacles to the standard face which increases apparent intelligence
and decreases good-lookingness of the figure. (15 min. slides)
Brunswik, E. (1939). Probability as a determiner of rat behavior. Journal
of Experimental Psychology, 25, 175-197.
Brunswik, E. (1939). The conceptual focus of some psychological systems.
of Unified Science (Erkenntnis), 8, 36-49.
Also in Marx, M. H. (Ed.). (1936). Theories in Contemporary Psychology.
New York: Macmillan, pp. 226-237. (Paper sent in for the Fourth International
Congress for the Unity of Science, Cambridge, England, 1938.)
Brunswik, E. (1940). Thing constancy as measured by correlation coefficients.
Review, 47, 69-78.
Brunswik, E. (1940). A random sample of estimated sizes and their relation
to corresponding size measurements. Psychological Bulletin, 37,
Abstract: A subject was asked to give intuitive as well as critical
estimates -- each in different attitudes -- of the extension of an object
most conspicuous to him at the moment. The conditions included indoor and
outdoor situations representative of the activities pursued during a normal
day. The material comprises a total of 180 of such situations. Objective
measurements of the objects as well as of their distances from the eye
were also obtained, showing approximately normal distributions. Almost
perfect correlations between measured and estimated sizes were found, indicating
the presence of perceptual size-constancy in an unbiased sample of "natural"
Brunswik, E. (1941). Perceptual size-constancy in life situations. Psychological
Bulletin, 38, 611-612.
Abstract: A sample of 93 frontal objects of various sizes and
distances representative of perceptial situations in everday life was secured
by obtaining from a subject, at irregular intervals during normal activities,
reports of the incidental perceptual contents. Immedidate perceptual estimates
(as well as critical ones) of object-size (distal stimulus), visual angle
(proximal, "retinals," stimulus), and of distance were given by both subject
and experimenter. The latter also secured the corresponding objective measures.
The sizes range from a few mm. to more that 100 m. and show a normal distribution
when plotted logarithmically, and the distances range from 25 cm, to about
Perceptual estimates show, on the whole, much better agreement with
the corresponding stimulus variable when this variable is distan object-size
(indicating good perceptual size-constancy), or when it is distance, than
when it is proximal size (supporting evidence against the "constancy-hypothesis").
Various correlations computed between the estimates and the environmental
variables after elimination of the environmental correlation between object-size
and retinal size are between .95 and 1.00 in the case of object-size and
of distance, and between 0 and .7 when retinal size is involved, with good
agreement between the coefficients representing the perceptual achievements
of the two observers. Averages of errors follow a similar pattern.
The generality of further findings of laboratory experimentation, such
as the comparative overestimation of near objects (perceptual compremise
between distal and proximal size), and the improvement of estimates by
shifting from the purely perceptual to the critically controlled attitudes
was also demonstrated by our random sample of size estimates. There also
is some indication of the relative independence of the distance functionally
"taken into consideration" in the establishment of size-constancy, and
the explicat ("conscious") estimates of distance.
Overestimation of vertical as contrasted to horizontal extensions was
not borne out by our data. (15 min., slides.)
Brunswik, E. (1943). Organismic achievement and environmental probability.
Review, 50, 255-272.
Part of "Symposium on Psychology and Scientific Method," held in 1941.
Other speakers were C. Hull and K. Lewin. Reported as "The Probability
Point of View" in Marx, M. H. (Ed.). (1951). Psychological Theory.
New York: Macmillan, pp. 188-202.
Brunswik, E. (1944). Distal focussing of perception: Size constancy in
a representative sample of situations. Psychological Monographs,
Brunswik, E. (1945). Social perception of traits from photographs. Psychological
Bulletin, 42, 535-536.
Abstract: Psychology classes totalling 95 subjects judged standardized
photographs of 46 Army STP students (IQ approximately 90 to 140) unknown
to them. Correlating "real" traits (mutual ASTP ratings, for intelligence
also tests) with corresponding average intuitive estimates shows social
perceptual validity ("achievement") to be negligible for intelligence (under
.10), statistically significant for personality traits such as energy and
likeability (about 35). Goodlookingness yields .65. Halos among judgments
are strong, and unrealistic considering low corresponding real-trait relationships
(added in parenthesis): intelligence with energy, 84 (.28) with likeability,
.62 (.01); with goodlookingness, .59 (.05) Among possible cues, height
(stature) correlates .25 with intuited intelligence; if confirmed, this
possibly indicates utilization of low but established height IQ relationship
of about .15 also found here. Among facial features, forehead-height shows
only .18 (compare with popular prejudice!) versus .22, nose-height .20
Brunswik, E. (1946). Points of view: Components of psychological theorizing.
In P. L. Harriman (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Psychology (pp. 523-537):
Brunswik, E. (1946). Four types of experiment. American Psychologist,
Brunswik, E. (1947). Systematic and representative design of psychological
experiments. With results in physical and social perception. Berkeley:
University of California Press.
Also published in J. Neyman (Ed.) (1949), Proceedings of the Berkeley
symposium on mathematical statistics and probability (pp. 143-202).
Berkeley: University of California Press. The Symposium was held at the
Statistical Laboratory, Department of Mathematics, University of California,
August 13-18, 1945, and January 27-29, 1946.
Brunswik, E. (1948). Statistical separation of perception, thinking, and
attitudes. American Psychologist, 3, 342.
Brunswik, E. (1949). Discussion: Remarks on functionalism in perception.
of Personality, 18, 56-65.
A contribution to a Symposium on Personal and Social Factors in Perception
held during the 1949 meetings of the American Psychological Association
Also appears in Bruner, J. S., & Krech, D., (Eds.) (1950). Perception
and Personality: A Symposium. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University
Press. (pp. 56-65)
Brunswik, E. (1951). Note on Hammond's analogy between "relativity and
representativeness". Philosophy of Science, 18, 212-217.
Brunswik, E., & Herma, H. (1951). Probability learning of perceptual
cues in the establishment of a weight illusion. Journal of Experimental
Psychology, 41, 281-290.
Brunswik, E. (1952). The Conceptual Framework of Psychology, International
Encyclopedia of Unified Science (Vol. 1, No. 10, pp. IV + 102). Chicago:
University of Chicago Press.
Pre-publication announced as Methodological Foundations of Psychology
and earlier as E. Brunswik and A. Ness, Theory of Behavior
Brunswik, E., & Kamiya, J. (1953). Ecological cue-validity of "proximity"
and of other Gestalt factors. American Journal of Psychology, 66,
Brunswik, E. (1955). "Ratiomorphic" models of perception and thinking.
Psychologica, 11, 108-109.
Also published in N. Maillouw (Ed.) (1955). Proceedings of the 14th
International Congress on Psychology, Montreal, 1954. Amsterdam: North
Brunswik, E. (1955). Representative design and probabilistic theory in
a functional psychology. Psychological Review, 62(3), 193-217.
Brunswik, E. (1955). In defense of probabilistic functionalism: A reply.
Review, 62, 236-242.
Brunswik, E. (1956). Historical and thematic relations of psychology to
other sciences. Scientific Monthly, 83, 151-161.
Also chapter 17 in Hammond, 1966
Brunswik, E. (1956). Perception and the representative design of psychological
experiments. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Part I is a reprint of Brunswik (1947). Part II is entitled "Perception:
The ecological generality of its distal aim.
Brunswik, E. (1957). Scope and aspects of the cognitive problem. In H.
Gruber, K. R. Hammond, & R. Jessor (Eds.), Contemporary approaches
to cognition (pp. 5-31). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Contributors to this volume were J. S. Bruner, E. Brunswik, L. Festinger,
F. Heider, K. F. Muenzinger, C. E. Osgood, and D. Rapaport.
Brunswik, E. (1959). Ontogenetic and other developmental parallels to the
history of science. In H. M. Evans (Ed.), Men and Moments in the History
of Science (pp. 3-21). Seattle: University of Washington Press.
Brunswik, E. (1966). Reasoning as a universal behavior model and a functional
differentiation between "perception" and "thinking". In K. R. Hammond (Ed.),
Psychology of Egon Brunswik (pp. 487-494). New York: Holt, Rinehart
Read at the International Congress of Psychology in Montreal, 1954.